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Phuket History: The slow road to Bangkok

Legacy Phuket Gazette

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Phuket History: The slow road to Bangkok | The Thaiger

PHUKET: Towards the end of the 18th century, trade and logistics was tough business. Phuket, or Junk Ceylon, during that time was rich in tin, a semi-precious metal that was highly sought after by European and Indian traders.

Tin mining was therefore an important source of revenue for the island. Because tin mines in Junk Ceylon were considered government property, a large chunk of trade revenue had to be sent to the capital on a regular basis. In a time long before banks and money transfers, revenue collected in the form of silver, gold or bartered goods had to be physically transported to the capital to be handed over to the king.

A rare piece of document dated from around 1785 explained this process. It was mandated that tin revenues from Junk Ceylon and nearby towns, as well as merchandise imported from eastern India had to be transported to the capital on a regular basis.

18th century Siamese merchants used a route that started from Takua-Pa, a town just north of Junk Ceylon. Travelers and caravans would then pass through Khao Sok in Surat Thani, an area that is covered with thick tropical rain forest and steep hills even today. The caravans would have to penetrate the tropical jungle until they reached the Thaphanom canal.

From there government officials would arrange for the goods to be taken to Chaiya. The cargo of tin and other goods would then be transported by small boats sailing along a collection of small rivers and canals until it reached the Siamese capital in the central plains. Since the Ayutthaya period and up until 1785, the trail had also been used by merchants to transport goods to the capital and who wished to avoid sailing all the way around the Malay Peninsular to reach the Bay of Bengal.

In order to ship tin revenues from Junk Ceylon to the capital, the governor of Thalang would arrange to send the cargo up to Takua-Thung. The governor of Takua-Thung would then arrange to forward the goods to Takua-Pa so that it could be transported along the trail.

The overland route was used for many reasons. It was an old route that had been used for many years by merchants, since the ancient days when Takua-Pa, or Takola as it was then called, was still a thriving trade center. A network of deep canals had been dug so that merchandise could be transported by large boats to different towns.

The town of Chaiya on the Kra Isthmus was also a popular stop for merchants and traders. Using this route was hard, considering merchants had to transport their heavy cargo for miles overland through harsh terrain. But it remained the preferred route because sailing around the Malay peninsular was considered even more dangerous. Storms have, in the past, wrecked countless ships and opportunistic pirates infested the sea trade routes.

However in 1785, the Burmese invaded Siam and war broke out between the two kingdoms. Whilst Junk Ceylon managed to fend off the invaders, the ancient land route to the capital that had been used for centuries was cut off by Burmese troops that had taken over parts of the isthmus.

It soon became impossible to transport tin and other revenues from Junk Ceylon to the capital since major towns like Takua-Pa, Takua-Thung, Chaiya and Chumporn had fallen under Burmese control. Stocks of tin, fabrics from India and an array of weaponry bound for the capital began to pile up at the Khao Sok pass for years. Much of the cargo was lost, damaged or stolen during this time.

After the war, King Rama I wanted to establish a new trade route from the South to Bangkok. He asked Phraya Surintharaja, a high ranking noble to find a new shipping route that would connect the south-west coastal towns with the capital.

Phraya Surintharaja was the governor of eight coastal towns in the south of Siam, including Thalang (Junk Ceylon), Takua-Pa and Takua-Thung, so he knew the geography of the area quite well. These towns made up a major part of the old route.

The arrival of the Portuguese, Dutch and English also meant that sea voyages were becoming safer and more advanced and were utilized to a greater extent.

Initially Phraya Surintharaja was asked by King Rama I come to Bangkok to meet with him. There the king told him that a high ranking minister had just passed away and that he wanted Phraya Surintharaja to take the vacant position.

Although highly honored, Phraya Surintharaja did not want to stay in Bangkok and he told the king that he would lead a happier life if he was allowed to remain as the king’s viceroy in the southern coastal towns.

In return, he promised King Rama I that he would open a new trade route that would connect the southern towns of Siam with Bangkok. The king agreed and Phraya Surintharaja set out to plan the new route. He asked the king to grant him the use of ten elephants from Nakhon-Si-Thammarat and another ten from Chaiya, in addition to a large workforce that he recruited from the nearby villages. The king approved of his request and the large project to clear a new route to Bangkok was underway.

The new route that Phraya Surintharaja built was a much needed replacement to the old one that had been in use for centuries. Using the new route, it only took three days for goods to reach Bangkok from the south.

The journey was also much easier and less prone to sudden flash floods that had in the past destroyed a lot of precious cargo. The new route not only allowed for easier transportation to the capital, it also made the administration of the southern provinces easier and more effective.

— Anand Singh

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Archiving articles from the Phuket Gazette circa 1998 - 2017. View the Phuket Gazette online archive and Digital Gazette PDF Prints.

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Thai Life

Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand (male to female) – a quick guide

The Thaiger

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Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand (male to female) – a quick guide | The Thaiger

MONTAGE: People Magazine

Thailand has a well-deserved reputation for excellence in sex reassignment surgery and the before and after care of patients. The country has a long relationship with Kathoeys, affectionately referred to in Thailand as ‘ladyboys’, and consequently, a well-developed approach to quality surgery in this area. The following article has been prepared by My Medi Travel.

Kathoey or katoey is a male-to-female transgender person or person of a third gender, or could be an effeminate homosexual male. Transgender women in Thailand mostly use terms other than kathoey when referring to themselves, such as phuying (Thai: ผู้หญิง ‘woman’). A significant number of Thais perceive kathoey as belonging to a third sex, including some transgender women themselves.

For people who want to match their born gender with what they feel is their ‘true’ gender, Thailand has an excellent reputation for Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) – also known as Gender Reassignment Surgery, Sex Change Operation, and MtF Surgery, to name a few. In this article we focus on the male to female related surgeries.

So, what makes Thailand such an attractive destination for this type of procedure? In short, it’s because patients can get the most out of such surgeries in Thailand thanks to the number of highly trained surgeons, low-cost and quality health care, and decades of knowledge and experience in perfecting this procedure.

If you’re considering SRS in Thailand, or you have a family member, a partner, or a friend who is wondering what is involved in the procedure, this guide should help to paint a clearer picture.

The Procedures

To undergo SRS is a huge, life-changing decision that should not be made lightly. It is a lengthy process that requires a lot of resilience and patience. Before the actual surgery, you will first need to live as a woman for at least a year and undertake hormone treatment to help reshape your body contour and stimulate the growth of a labia majora.

Here’s a list of the required prerequisites that all surgeons will insist upon before considering your case:

  • You must be at least 20 years old or have consent from parents / legal guardians for those between 18 and 20.
  • At least 12 months of successful and continuous real-life experience living as a woman.
  • At least 12 months of continuous hormonal therapy.
  • Must consult with a psychiatrist in your country and in the country where the procedure will be performed (this can be arranged in your chosen hospital).
  • Physically fit for surgery.

The actual process usually involves a few procedures:

  • Orchiectomy (removal of testes) and Penectomy (removal of the penis)
  • Vaginoplasty (creation of a vagina)
  • Breast Augmentation
  • Facial and Voice Feminisation Surgery (FFS and VFS)

You may also choose other surgical procedures, such as a Tracheal Shave to remove your Adam’s apple, or a Buttock Augmentation to increase the volume of the buttocks. Since every patient is unique, the procedures involved in SRS can be performed based on your needs and budget.

The most important part of male-to-female surgery is the creation of the vagina. There are numerous surgical techniques to do this based on your preference. You can discuss with your surgeon which one is best for you. The other popular techniques are as follows:

1. SRS without vaginal depth

  • This procedure is suitable for who those do not need vaginal penetration of sexual intercourse and unwanted vaginal dilation.
  • Hospitalization: 4 nights
  • Duration time of surgery: 2.5 hours
  • Recovery time in Thailand: 3-4 weeks
  • Approx. cost $8,400 USD

2. SRS with Penile Skin Inversion

  • Suitable for patients who do not want a vagina for sexual intercourse, particularly popular with elderly trans people. Depth is around 2-4 cm (1-2 in) and penile hair removal is required prior to surgery.
  • Surgery: 2.5 hours
  • Hospitalization: 4 nights
  • Recovery time in the local area is 3-4 weeks
  • Approx. cost $9,800 USD

3. SRS with Scrotal Skin Graft

  • Scrotal skin is used to create a vaginal depth of up to 13-15 cm (5-6 in), depending on skin quality and quantity (additional depth is possible by using groin skin). This is the most popular SRS procedure.
  • Surgery: 4 hours
  • Hospitalization: 6 nights
  • Recovery time in the local area is 3-4 weeks
  • Approx. cost $9,800 USD (with the option to increase depth further for $1,400 USD)

4. SRS with Sigmoid Colon by Laparoscopic Technique

  • The Sigmoid colon is used to create the vagina, allowing for greater depth than what is possible with SRS with a scrotal skin graft. More suited to those with less scrotal skin or those who prefer to have a lubricated vagina, like that of a biological woman. By far the most expensive technique.
  • Surgery: 6 hours
  • Hospitalisation: 7 nights
  • Recovery time in the local area is 3-4 weeks
  • The open technique, with a ~8-10 cm incision scar in the bikini line; approx. 13,700 USD
  • Laparoscopic technique; 4 small incisions in the abdomen; approx. 18,850 USD

Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand (male to female) - a quick guide | News by The Thaiger

Caitlyn Jenner, possibly the most famous, and well-publicised, transgender person

Recovery

Recovery after surgery will be a long and painful process. It will also require several follow up procedures as well as constant monitoring so you will have to stay a little bit longer at the hospital until you are fully ready to be discharged. Generally, allow for a minimum of 3 weeks stay in Thailand or the country of your choice area after your surgery. Most people are able to return to work in about 4-6 weeks after a sex change operation. Furthermore, you can resume strenuous work and exercise in about 6-8 weeks. It is vital that you strictly follow all medication instructions during your recovery period.

Aftercare

Social support is very important before and after the surgery, especially the support that comes from your family and loved ones. You have to be socially and emotionally stable before you undergo the operation. This is why it is required that you have proper counseling to help you with your emotional wellbeing. You have to prepare yourself mentally, before, during and after transition because it can be quite overwhelming and stressful.

It is also important that you maintain regular check-ups with your local Doctor to monitor the progress of your healing and avoid such complications.

Success Rate

The success rate for a sex change is very high, given our technological advancements. Gender reassignment surgery from male to female has a higher success rate than female to male; this is why more male transgender opts for a sex change.

However, given the nature and complexities of this type of surgery, you also have to be aware of its complications:

  • Possible risk of infection
  • Severe pain
  • Bleeding
  • Blood clotting and scarring

Possible side effects may also include:

  • Decreased sexual sensation and ability to orgasm
  • Fistula (opening between rectum and vagina)
  • Narrowing of vagina and hair growth in the vagina from the grafted tissue
  • Partial death of tissue used to create the new vagina

Costs

SRS can be very expensive, especially since it is difficult to get this type of surgery in many countries. One reason why Thailand is popular with those who want to change their sexual identity is that the country offers more affordable fees. Many patients come from the United States because the US has the most expensive male-to-female SRS prices in the world.

The prices range from $25,000 to $30,000 for just the reconstruction of the genitals alone. If you want to add breast augmentation and voice feminisation surgery, you can expect to pay more than $50,000. Additionally, some clinics in the US don’t include consultation fees in their prices, so you need to pay at least $50-100 for every consultation.

In general, SRS in Thailand costs around a third to half of what it can cost in the United States. For the reconstruction of the genitals in Thailand, you can expect to pay between $8,400 to $13,700 depending on which technique you choose.

Breast augmentation costs approximately $4,100 to $6,170 and Voice Feminisation Surgery costs between $3,590 to $7,180. In total, you will need to pay around $16,090 to $27,050 in Thailand for the complete procedure. These prices can also include packages, such as hospitalization accommodation, post-operative care, consultation fee, post-operative care, medications, and transportation.

Quality

The low-cost healthcare in Thailand does not mean low-quality treatment. In fact, Thailand is extremely popular among medical tourists because the country is known to have high-quality healthcare. Numerous medical centers in Thailand are accredited by prestigious international organizations, such as the Joint Commission International (JCI). The country has come a long way since its first Sex Reassignment Surgery in 1975, with many surgeons specialising in SRS for years, some even have over 20 years of experience. With their skills and experience, the surgeons and clinics can give patients the proper care they need and guarantee the best possible result.

Since there are many medical centres in the country that offer Male to Female SRS, it is understandable that some will better than others. To avoid disappointment, do your research, read reviews, find out about the clinic’s accreditation, and ask for your surgeon’s certifications. Better still, seek out the services of a dedicated Medical Tourism Facilitator like MyMediTravel who will guide you through the whole process and find you the best possible surgeon/clinic/hospital available and within your budget.

Keep in contact with The Thaiger by following our Facebook page.
Continue Reading

Medical

Your ultimate guide to Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand (male to female)

Cita Catellya

Published

on

Your ultimate guide to Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand (male to female) | The Thaiger

For those who want to match their physical gender with what they feel is their true gender, Thailand is the place for Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) – also known as Gender Reassignment Surgery, Sex Change Operation, and MtF Surgery, to name a few. So, what makes Thailand such an attractive destination for this type of procedure? In short, it’s because patients can get the most out of such surgeries in Thailand thanks to the number of highly trained surgeons, low-cost and quality health care, and decades of knowledge and experience in perfecting this procedure.

If you’re considering SRS in Thailand, or you have a family member, a partner, or a friend who is wondering what is involved in the procedure, this guide should help to paint a clearer picture.

The Procedures

To undergo SRS is a huge, life-changing decision that should not be made lightly. It is a lengthy process that requires a lot of resilience and patience. Before the actual surgery, you will first need to live as a woman for at least a year and undertake hormone treatment to help reshape your body contour and stimulate the growth of a labia majora.

Here’s a list of the required prerequisites that all surgeons will insist upon before considering your case:

  • You must be at least 20 years old or have consent from parents / legal guardians for those between 18 and 20.
  • At least 12 months of successful and continuous real-life experience living as a woman.
  • At least 12 months of continuous hormonal therapy.
  • Must consult with a psychiatrist in your country and in the country where the procedure will be performed (this can be arranged in your chosen hospital).
  • Physically fit for surgery.

The actual process usually involves a few procedures:

  • Orchiectomy (removal of testes) and Penectomy (removal of the penis)
  • Vaginoplasty (creation of a vagina)
  • Breast Augmentation
  • Facial and Voice Feminisation Surgery (FFS and VFS)

You may also choose other surgical procedures, such as a Tracheal Shave to remove your Adam’s apple, or a Buttock Augmentation to increase the volume of the buttocks. Since every patient is unique, the procedures involved in SRS can be performed based on your needs and budget.

The most important part of male-to-female surgery is the creation of the vagina. There are numerous surgical techniques to do this based on your preference. You can discuss with your surgeon which one is best for you. The other popular techniques are as follows:

1. SRS without vaginal depth

  • This procedure is suitable for who those do not need vaginal penetration of sexual intercourse and unwanted vaginal dilation.
  • Hospitalization: 4 nights
  • Duration time of surgery: 2.5 hours
  • Recovery time in Thailand: 3-4 weeks
  • Approx. cost $8,400 USD

2. SRS with Penile Skin Inversion

  • Suitable for patients who do not want a vagina for sexual intercourse, particularly popular with elderly trans people. Depth is around 2-4 cm (1-2 in) and penile hair removal is required prior to surgery.
  • Surgery: 2.5 hours
  • Hospitalization: 4 nights
  • Recovery time in the local area is 3-4 weeks
  • Approx. cost $9,800 USD

3. SRS with Scrotal Skin Graft

  • Scrotal skin is used to create a vaginal depth of up to 13-15 cm (5-6 in), depending on skin quality and quantity (additional depth is possible by using groin skin). This is the most popular SRS procedure.
  • Surgery: 4 hours
  • Hospitalization: 6 nights
  • Recovery time in the local area is 3-4 weeks
  • Approx. cost $9,800 USD (with the option to increase depth further for $1,400 USD)

4. SRS with Sigmoid Colon by Laparoscopic Technique

  • The Sigmoid colon is used to create the vagina, allowing for greater depth than what is possible with SRS with a scrotal skin graft. More suited to those with less scrotal skin or those who prefer to have a lubricated vagina, like that of a biological woman. By far the most expensive technique.
  • Surgery: 6 hours
  • Hospitalisation: 7 nights
  • Recovery time in the local area is 3-4 weeks
  • The open technique, with a ~8-10 cm incision scar in the bikini line; approx. 13,700 USD
  • Laparoscopic technique; 4 small incisions in the abdomen; approx. 18,850 USD
Your ultimate guide to Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand (male to female) | News by The Thaiger

Caitlyn Jenner, Possibly the Most Famous Transgender Person Ever

Recovery

Recovery after surgery will be a long and painful process. It will also require several follow up procedures as well as constant monitoring so you will have to stay a little bit longer at the hospital until you are fully ready to be discharged. Generally, allow for a minimum of 3 weeks stay in Thailand or the country of your choice area after your surgery. Most people are able to return to work in about 4-6 weeks after a sex change operation. Furthermore, you can resume strenuous work and exercise in about 6-8 weeks. It is vital that you strictly follow all medication instructions during your recovery period.

Aftercare

Social support is very important before and after the surgery, especially the support that comes from your family and loved ones. You have to be socially and emotionally stable before you undergo the operation. This is why it is required that you have proper counseling to help you with your emotional wellbeing. You have to prepare yourself mentally, before, during and after transition because it can be quite overwhelming and stressful.

It is also important that you maintain regular check-ups with your local Doctor to monitor the progress of your healing and avoid such complications.

Success Rate

The success rate for a sex change is very high, given our technological advancements. Gender reassignment surgery from male to female has a higher success rate than female to male; this is why more male transgender opts for a sex change.

However, given the nature and complexities of this type of surgery, you also have to be aware of its complications:

  • Possible risk of infection
  • Severe pain
  • Bleeding
  • Blood clotting and scarring

Possible side effects may also include:

  • Decreased sexual sensation and ability to orgasm
  • Fistula (opening between rectum and vagina)
  • Narrowing of vagina and hair growth in the vagina from the grafted tissue
  • Partial death of tissue used to create the new vagina

Costs

SRS can be very expensive, especially since it is difficult to get this type of surgery in many countries. One reason why Thailand is popular with those who want to change their sexual identity is that the country offers more affordable fees. Many patients come from the United States because the US has the most expensive male-to-female SRS prices in the world.

The prices range from $25,000 to $30,000 for just the reconstruction of the genitals alone. If you want to add breast augmentation and voice feminisation surgery, you can expect to pay more than $50,000. Additionally, some clinics in the US don’t include consultation fees in their prices, so you need to pay at least $50-100 for every consultation.

In general, SRS in Thailand costs around a third to half of what it can cost in the United States. For the reconstruction of the genitals in Thailand, you can expect to pay between $8,400 to $13,700 depending on which technique you choose.

Breast augmentation costs approximately $4,100 to $6,170 and Voice Feminisation Surgery costs between $3,590 to $7,180. In total, you will need to pay around $16,090 to $27,050 in Thailand for the complete procedure. These prices can also include packages, such as hospitalization accommodation, post-operative care, consultation fee, post-operative care, medications, and transportation.

Quality

The low-cost healthcare in Thailand does not mean low-quality treatment. In fact, Thailand is extremely popular among medical tourists because the country is known to have high-quality healthcare. Numerous medical centers in Thailand are accredited by prestigious international organizations, such as the Joint Commission International (JCI). The country has come a long way since its first Sex Reassignment Surgery in 1975, with many surgeons specialising in SRS for years, some even have over 20 years of experience. With their skills and experience, the surgeons and clinics can give patients the proper care they need and guarantee the best possible result.

Since there are many medical centres in the country that offer Male to Female SRS, it is understandable that some will better than others. To avoid disappointment, do your research, read reviews, find out about the clinic’s accreditation, and ask for your surgeon’s certifications. Better still, seek out the services of a dedicated Medical Tourism Facilitator like MyMediTravel who will guide you through the whole process and find you the best possible surgeon/clinic/hospital available and within your budget.

Continue Reading

Economy

Study shows most Thai people live hand to mouth

May Taylor

Published

on

Study shows most Thai people live hand to mouth | The Thaiger

PHOTO: eTamping

Nearly half of Thailand’s citizens aged 18-65 are spending everything they earn on monthly bills and living expenses, leaving them with nothing to put aside as savings. A study carried out by GoBear, an international financial comparison site, reveals that the highest percentage of people living paycheck to paycheck (53%) are those in the 36-45 age group.

51% of both the 26-35 and 56-65 age groups say they too only earn enough money to cover bills and living costs. Thai Residents reports that many Thai citizens want to retire by the age of 53, but the latest findings show that most would not have the means to do so.

Benjarong Suvarnkiri from digital banking channel ME by TMB says Thai people face a funds shortage each month, meaning they regularly have to move money back and forth in order to meet their financial commitments.

The number of people dealing with recurring money problems is higher in Thailand than almost every other country in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, despite the fact that Thais typically earn more than those in countries like Indonesia.

The GoBear findings also reveal that 15% of Thai people have no savings to tide them over in the case of unemployment and have no retirement fund, despite most saying they want to retire at the age of 53.

This age is lower than the preferred retirement age of citizens in other Asian countries such as Hong Kong, the Philippines and Indonesia, with Thai Residents also reporting that Thai people generally start saving or investing much later than those in other countries.

SOURCE: Thai Residents

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